Safeguarding the Planet
The 2020 G20 will pursue collective efforts and take concrete actions to safeguard our commons.
Managing Emissions for Sustainable Development
Climate change is one of the most pressing global challenges of the 21st century. The urgency to act on climate change increases as the world population continues to grow and emissions rise. Adopting an economic model that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels in the atmosphere, while supporting economic growth and sustainable development, has become more imperative than ever, and the G20 will need to be at the forefront of this process. Mainstream climate-change efforts are not enough and there are prospects to consider more comprehensive approaches. The Saudi G20 Presidency will advance efforts for managing emissions in all sectors and improving synergies between adaptation and mitigation actions, including nature-based solutions such as reforestation and protecting and restoring marine resources.
Combating Land Degradation and Habitat Loss
Around 12 million hectares of land are lost annually due to land degradation including deforestation. Land degradation impacts more than three billion people directly or indirectly and contributes to massive habitat and ecosystem services losses. Deforestation and other land use are also responsible for 24 percent of GHG emissions. The G20 has the potential to lead the international community in working toward minimizing land degradation and deforestation to conserve biodiversity and meet climate goals.
Preserving the Oceans
Human activity and climate change endanger the survival of coral reefs, which 25 to 50 percent of the world's marine life depends on. Without concrete actions, it is estimated that a significant share of coral reefs is at risk. Due to the importance and urgency of this issue, Saudi Arabia will build on the Japanese G20 Presidency's efforts and advance discussions on the preservation of our ocean ecosystems.
Fostering Sustainable and Resilient Water Systems Globally
Water stress is one of the most-pressing and greatest challenges facing the world in the 21st century. It poses a serious challenge to meet the 2030 Agenda and beyond for sustainable development. Population growth, rapid urbanization, lack of investment in and aging of water infrastructure are factors posing an ever-increasing pressure on water resources worldwide. For these reasons, the Saudi G20 Presidency will foster global cooperation on water management and address policy, financing and innovation challenges to ensure water security for all.
Promoting Food Security
Ensuring access to affordable, safe and nutritious food for all is critical, especially given the urbanization and rapid growth of the population. Food security will be all the more difficult to achieve given climate change impact, increasing pressure on natural resources, loss of biodiversity, the challenges of sustainable agriculture and changing dietary habits. Almost 800 million people still suffer from hunger as a result. In response, the Saudi G20 Presidency proposes that the G20 steps up its efforts on food loss and waste and promote responsible agricultural investments.
Cleaner Energy Systems for a New Era
Access to cleaner, more sustainable and affordable energy is fundamental to reducing poverty and promoting economic growth. For sustainable energy transitions, utilization of all energy sources and innovative technologies will offer opportunities to further advance cleaner energy transitions. Under the Saudi Presidency, the G20 will discuss the concept of circular carbon economy; covering a variety of energy solutions and technologies, underpinned by research development and innovation (RD&I) to ensure cleaner, more sustainable and affordable energy systems. In addition, the G20 will address energy security and market stability for economic prosperity and livelihood.